Scale Hardness: 6.5-7.5
Specific Gravity: 3.4-4.3
Refractive Index: 1.72-1.94
Fracture: conchoidal, somewhat brittle
Crystal Habit: rhombic dodecahedra or cubic
Colors: Garnet is found in virtually all colors, while mozambique garnet is
red to red-orange.
garnet, it is the red to orange-red type of garnet. Mozambique garnet is the
most common commercial color of garnet seen.
The name garnet is derived from the Latin word granatus
"grain," referencing the pomegranate fruit which has red seeds
similar in color, shape, and size to the garnet. The most common color of
garnet is red but there are many other colors including, orange, yellow,
green, pink, purple, brown, black, and colorless. Garnet is the traditional
birthstone for January, and has been used for many thousands of years.
References towards the stone can be found in both the Bible and the Koran.
Garnet was also used in North, South, and Central America by Indian tribes
who thought of it as sacred. Garnet is a semiprecious gemstone that is
popular in jewelry, and is used as an abrasive (used for smoothing and
grinding) because of its ability to be recycled, cost efficient, and it is
easy to clean.
While there are many types of garnet, they have essentially the same
isometric crystal structure varying in their physical properties and chemical
composition. There are six common species of garnet based on their chemical
composition which are; pyrope, almandine, spessartine, grossular, uvarovite,
and andradite. From these six, two main groups are formed: pyralspite
(pyrope, almandine, spessartine), and ugrandite (uvarovite, grossular,
andradite). A natural garnet's composition generally falls somewhere between
the two main groups and are rarely if ever found precisely matching the pure
species. A variety of garnet called mozambique is red to orange-red in
color. Its chemical composition is a mixture between pyrope and almandine,
averaging a 1:1 mixture respectively. Another variety using both pyrope and
almandine is rhodolite, a rose-red to purple garnet with a composition
mixture average of 2:1 respectively.
Grossular garnets that are brown, orange-red, or yellow-orange are known as hessonite.
Rare forms of garnet such as tsavorite and demantoid occur when
ions such as Cr3+, V3+ and Ti3+/4+ replace the common composition of the
mineral. Color change garnet can also be found. This color change occurs when
the stone is placed under fluorescent light versus incandescent light. The
cause of the color change is impurities, in large amounts, of vanadium or
chromium in malaia garnets.
garnet is found in Mozambique. Other types of garnet can be found in; Africa,
Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, India, Madagascar, Myanmar
Scotland, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Switzerland, Tanzania, and the
United States (In the states of; Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, New
Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia).
Treatments and Lab Created Forms:
only current garnet treatment known and used is on demantoid garnet. It is
sometimes mildly heated to enhance the color. Natural forms of garnet are not
currently made in laboratories, but there are simulants and cubic zirconias
with similar color to garnet.
View our Mozambique Garnet