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Mozambique Garnet

General Information:
Mozambique garnet, it is the red to orange-red type of garnet. Mozambique garnet is the most common commercial color of garnet seen.
The name garnet is derived from the Latin word granatus "grain," referencing the pomegranate fruit which has red seeds similar in color, shape, and size to the garnet. The most common color of garnet is red but there are many other colors including, orange, yellow, green, pink, purple, brown, black, and colorless. Garnet is the traditional birthstone for January, and has been used for many thousands of years. References towards the stone can be found in both the Bible and the Koran. Garnet was also used in North, South, and Central America by Indian tribes who thought of it as sacred. Garnet is a semiprecious gemstone that is popular in jewelry, and is used as an abrasive (used for smoothing and grinding) because of its ability to be recycled, cost efficient, and it is easy to clean.
While there are many types of garnet, they have essentially the same isometric crystal structure varying in their physical properties and chemical composition. There are six common species of garnet based on their chemical composition which are; pyrope, almandine, spessartine, grossular, uvarovite, and andradite. From these six, two main groups are formed: pyralspite (pyrope, almandine, spessartine), and ugrandite (uvarovite, grossular, andradite). A natural garnet's composition generally falls somewhere between the two main groups and are rarely if ever found precisely matching the pure species. A variety of garnet called mozambique is red to orange-red in color. Its chemical composition is a mixture between pyrope and almandine, averaging a 1:1 mixture respectively. Another variety using both pyrope and almandine is rhodolite, a rose-red to purple garnet with a composition mixture average of 2:1 respectively.
Grossular garnets that are brown, orange-red, or yellow-orange are known as hessonite. Rare forms of garnet such as tsavorite and demantoid occur when ions such as Cr3+, V3+ and Ti3+/4+ replace the common composition of the mineral. Color change garnet can also be found. This color change occurs when the stone is placed under fluorescent light versus incandescent light. The cause of the color change is impurities, in large amounts, of vanadium or chromium in malaia garnets.
Origin:
Mozambique garnet is found in Mozambique. Other types of garnet can be found in; Africa, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, India, Madagascar, Myanmar (Burma), Russia, Scotland, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Switzerland, Tanzania, and the United States (In the states of; Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia).
Common Treatments and Lab Created Forms:
The only current garnet treatment known and used is on demantoid garnet. It is sometimes mildly heated to enhance the color. Natural forms of garnet are not currently made in laboratories, but there are simulants and cubic zirconias with similar color to garnet.
Physical Properties:
Moh's Scale Hardness: 6.5-7.5
Specific Gravity: 3.4-4.3
Refractive Index: 1.72-1.94
Fracture: conchoidal, somewhat brittle
Crystal Habit: rhombic dodecahedra or cubic
Colors: Garnet is found in virtually all colors, while mozambique garnet is red to red-orange.
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