Diamonds are the official birthstone for the month of April. The name diamond comes from the Greek work adamas which means invincible, which was in reference to the minerals great hardness. Diamonds are formed from the element carbon, which forms two minerals one being diamonds the hardest known mineral on Earth, the other graphite one of the softest minerals on Earth. The conditions needed to form or create diamonds is extremely high temperatures and pressures, which is only possible deep in the Earth’s crust or even the upper mantle. A large majority of diamonds are small and flawed by dark impurities, these are the diamonds used for industrial purposes. Since diamonds are so hard, they are used as an abrasive and for cutting and grinding.
For years diamonds have been a favorite among people, used most commonly in wedding and engagement rings. It is said that before purchasing a diamond, the 4 C’s must be known; Clarity, Carat, Color, and Cut. There are several different grades of diamonds, determined by the clarity, cut, and color of the gem.
Sources of diamonds are found in Africa, Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, Australia, and the United States.
Properties, Treatments & Lab Created
Diamond is rated a 10 on the Mohs scale, making it the hardest gemstone which is one of the strongest selling points using it for wedding sets.
There are several common treatments used to enhance diamonds, including; laser drilling, applying sealants, and treatments to colorize. Laser drilling is done to remove inclusions in the gems, while sealants are used to fill cracks. To colorize a diamond, they will take a white diamond and use different treatments to give it a fancy color.
For years the expense of diamonds has created many alternatives to the natural. There are synthetic diamonds created in a laboratory that have the same composition as natural diamonds, these have grown in popularity recently.
Some of the most popular simulants for diamond is Cubic Zirconia and Moissanite.